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Can you catch hypothermia without frostbite in temperatures of 3 degrees centigrade, if you wear gloves a ski mask and hat but only a shirt or pull over?
Short Answer: Yes.Long Answer: Buckle Up.Keeping it simple and in wilderness medicine framework, Iu2019ll talk about just two forms of hypothermia (Iu2019ll leave out other common forms such as iatrogenic and theraputic); Accidental (aka Primary) and Trauma Induced (aka Metabolic). Hypothermia is, at its essence, a thermoregulation problem and, by definition, Accidental Hypothermia (to what you are referring in your question- being outside and getting cold) is determined when the bodyu2019s core temperature drops below 35deg C (95dec F) *1,2.From Wilderness Medical Society Practice Guidelines for the Out-of-Hospital Evaluation and Treatment of Accidental Hypothermia: 2022 Update *1:Hypothermia occurs as a result of net heat loss from the body. Heat can be lost or gained by conduction, convection, and radiation and lost through evaporation. Conduction is the direct transfer of heat from warmer to cooler objects that are in contact with each other. Convection is the transfer of heat to or from a gas or a liquid that is in motion. Radiation is the transfer of heat in the form of electromagnetic energy between 2 objects that are visible to each other. Evaporation is the loss of heat by vaporizing liquidu2014usually wateru2014in sweat, on the skin, or in clothing, or from insensible losses from the skin or from respiration.The human body attempts to maintain a core temperature of 371C 0.51C. The thermoregulatory control center in the hypothalamus receives input from central and peripheral thermal receptors. The integrated thermal signal triggers autonomic reflexes that control whether cooling responses, such as vasodilation or sweating, or warming responses, such as vasoconstriction or shivering, are initiated.1 Peripheral blood flow is also partly regulated by local skin temperature.You can get hypothermic in 21C (70F) weather in the tropics if you, say, get drunk and fall asleep on sand wearing wet clothes in a light breeze (conduction, convection, evaporation forms of heat loss and a slowed metabolic rate with no external heat source).As a firefighter, we have a lot of frozen bodies of water in our district and ice rescue teams within the department; people who break through the ice may, depending upon clothing, fitness, temp, etc, begin experiencing hypothermia within minutes, frostbite can set in after hypothermia takes hold.Metabolic Hypothermia, on the other hand, is a result of the bodyu2019s response to trauma- called Trauma Induced Hypothermia (TIH)- and is something which has been identified in the past decade with advances in austere medicine coming out of the Afghanistan and Iraq wars, and it can occur in 38C temps in trauma patients. Whereas Accidental Hypothermia sets in at 35C, TIH occurs due to metabolic factors and sets in at a body core temperature of just 36C (a full degree sooner) following a traumatic injury*2. As a result, in backcountry medicine one of the first things we do is wrap a trauma patient in a blanket of some kind (sleeping bag, emergency/u201dspaceu201d blanket, etc) to address this concern.So, can you u201ccatchu201d hypothermia in 3C (37F) weather without getting frostbite, regardless of what you are wearing? Absolutely. The two, while not mutually exclusive, are not necessarily congruous either, nor are they necessarily progressive or resultant.Ken Zafren, MD; Gordon G. Giesbrecht, PhD; Daniel F. Danzl, MD; Hermann Brugger, MD; Emily B. Sagalyn, MD, MPH; Beat Walpoth, MD; Eric A. Weiss, MD; Paul S. Auerbach, MD; Scott E. McIntosh, MD, MPH; Ma?ria Ne?methy, MD; Marion McDevitt, DO, MPH; Jennifer Dow, MD; Robert B. Schoene, MD; George W. Rodway, PhD, APRN; Peter H. Hackett, MD; Brad L. Bennett, PhD; Colin K. Grissom, MD. Wilderness Medical Society Practice Guidelines for the Out-of-Hospital Evaluation and Treatment of Accidental Hypothermia: 2022 Update. WILDERNESS & ENVIRONMENTAL MEDICINE, 25, S66u2013S85 (2022)Brad L. Bennett, PhD, EMT-P, FAWM; John B. Holcomb, MD. Battlefield Trauma-Induced Hypothermia: Transitioning the Preferred Method of Casualty Rewarming. WILDERNESS & ENVIRONMENTAL MEDICINE, 28, S82u2013S89 (2022)
Why isn't more being done to develop renewable energy technology?
More is being done. Itu2019s not about how much is spent. Donu2019t look for solutions from bloated government programs and University research programs. There is nothing intrinsically creative about institutions. Creative solutions come from talented individuals, who may or may not work in those environments.As an example, after millions of dollars spent to figure out a way to make turbines in along the south Texas coastline safer for birds, the best thing they could come up with was implementing radar systems to detect birds and command the turbines to shut down. A very high-tech solution, indeed, full of exciting u201cblingu201d that is attractive to technology magpies. Unfortunately, the detection system itself costs lots of money, and the solution, when implemented, actually reduces the operating time of the turbines, resulting in reduced revenue.Several years ago one of my wave energy projects was funded with government money. The overhead and reporting for the project sapped close to 50% of the budget. Plus, this was research, meaning that for some elements we needed to u201cfind our way.u201d The lack of flexibility to purchase parts to work out variations, even at laboratory scale, was an impediment to the creative process. When we ultimately succeeded and I looked back on the project, I concluded that it could have been done for about 20% of what was actually spent.My conclusion, after having over 30 years associated with government funded research, is that they have no business in that business with the exception of certain things that for security purposes absolutely cannot be entrusted outside (e.g., design of nuclear weapons). Even there, the designers at Los Alamos are not directly government employees but are civilians under contract. And yes, the processes there are inefficient and onerous. But, nobody else is allowed to do that particular work.Renewable energy is totally different. Every Henry Ford, Dean Kamen, Steve Jobs, or guys like me have the opportunity to conduct research and create with private funds to build things that compete in a free market. Just take a moment and try to imagine what progress computer technology might have made if only the government (or sponsored operators) had been allowed to develop it. If it were the government that decided whether the only operating system would be DOS or Unix or Windows, and the only architecture to be a PC. Innovation would be virtually nonexistent, and we would have the equivalent of the consumer products from the Soviet block during that era (terrible, cheap cars, etc.).In todayu2019s environment, there are some of us who, in spite of the growing involvement and influence of wasteful government meddling in this sector, have chosen to walk the righteous path. We are funding our work with private money, out of our own pockets. The result is that we are lean, mean, and efficient in not just the way we perform the research but in our expectations for the economic efficiency of the products we create.The result of is this approach is a soon to be marketed wind turbine that makes power for 1/2 the cost of the big commercial units, doesnu2019t hurt birds, is not an eyesore, and can be operated sustainably in economically disadvantaged locales.But tell the government about it, and they donu2019t want to know about it. It upsets the status quo of there incredibly wasteful u201csandboxu201d approach and does not support the narrative that government can do things better than the private sector, which is 100% false.As Ayn Randu2019s character John Galt said, u201cGet out of my way.u201d
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